In the Vehicle Combatives and Shooting Tactics course (VCAST), we develop firearms and empty-hand techniques for encounters that occur in and around vehicles. This is a twenty-four-hour block of instruction taught over three days. The coursework is contextualized for the problems an armed citizen might face while inside or near an automobile. Skills are demonstrated and taught using both operable and inoperable vehicles, some of which will be shot or otherwise damaged throughout the course. Student vehicles are also used for certain portions of instruction (no damage will be done to student vehicles). VCAST is considered a more advanced course, due to the nature of the developmental drills. Students must successfully complete Extreme Close Quarter Concepts (ECQC) before enrolling in VCAST. This prerequisite is mandatory (no exceptions).